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U.S. Census Research Guide: 1880

The U.S. Census Bureau conducts several data collection programs about the U.S. population which have their own language, geography, and data portals. This guide is based on a similar guide created by Kelly Smith at UCSD.

For more info...

Raw Data Files

These are computer files intended to be loaded into statistical software for analysis and creating your own tables. In some cases these files can be used with spreadsheet software as well.

Population Schedules

Census population schedules (or "name schedules" or "manuscript census") are copies of the original questionnaires collected during each decennial census. They list the individual names and family information of the people enumerated. Unlike the statistics published soon after the census, the population schedules remain confidential for 72 years. 1930 is the most recent population schedule available.

Contact

Need help? Use the Ask-A-Librarian reference service, or call us at (847) 491-7656, during Research Assistance Desk hours.

To consult with a government information specialist by appointment, contact govinfo@northwestern.edu

About the 1880 Census

Highlights of the 1880 Census

  • 10th decennial census
  • US population: 50,155,783
  • Illinois population:  3,077,871

Questions asked

Address; nickname; relationship to head of family; sex; race; age; marital status; month of birth if born within the census year; married within the year; occupation; number of months unemployed during year; sickness or temporary disability; whether blind, deaf and dumb, idiotic, insane, maimed, crippled, bedridden, or otherwise disabled; school attendance; literacy; place of birth of person and parents. Supplemental schedules for the Indian population; for persons who died during the year; insane; idiots; deaf-mutes; blind; homeless children; prisoners; paupers and indigent persons.

For more information:

Map Coverage of the 1880 Census

For more information:

Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses, 1790 - 1920

Statistics of the 1880 Census

Multi-year census compilations (compare across years): These sources tend to include statistics for large geographic areas (e.g. states), but can be very useful when comparing statistics over time.

Digitized Data Sources

Key publications:

Print available in the Library

Online access

Statistics of the population of the United States
 Gov Info Census C 3/a. 10/ 5: 1  (reprint)

From the Census Bureau

Report on the manufactures of the United States Gov Info Census C 3/a. 10/ 5: 2   (reprint)

From the Census Bureau

Report on the production of agriculture

Gov Info Census C 3/a. 10/ 5: 3    (reprint)

From the Census Bureau

Report on the agencies of transportation in the United States : including the statistics of railroads, steam navigation, canals, telegraphs, and telephones.
 Gov Info Census C 3/a. 10/ 5: 4   (reprint)

From the Census Bureau

Report on cotton production in the United States : also embracing agricultural and physico-geographical descriptions of the several cotton states and of California
 Gov Info Census C 3/a. 10/ 5: 5-6   (reprint, in two volumes)

From the Census Bureau

Report on valuation, taxation, and public indebtedness in the United States
 Gov Info Census C 3/a. 10/ 5: 7  (reprint)

From the Census Bureau

The newspaper and periodical press / by S.N.D. North. Alaska : its population, industries, and resources / by Ivan Petroff. The Seal Islands of Alaska / by Henry W. Elliot. Ship-building industry in the United States / by Henry Hall.
 Gov Info Census C 3/a. 10/ 5: 8   (reprint)

From the Census Bureau

Report on the forests of North America (exclusive of Mexico) / [compiled] by Charles S. Sargent, special agent tenth census.
 Gov Info Census C 3/a. 10/ 5: 9   (reprint)

From the Census Bureau

Production, technology, and uses of petroleum and its products / by S. F. Peckham. The manufacture of coke / by Joseph D. Weeks. Building stones of the United States, and statistics of the quarry industry for 1880.
 Gov Info Census C 3/a. 10/ 5: 10   (reprint)

(Note: pages 713 and 795-812 missing from edition on Census website)

From the Census Bureau

Report on the mortality and vital statistics of the United States as returned at the tenth census (June 1, 1880)
 Gov Info Census C 3/a. 10/ 5: 11-12   (reprint, 2 volumes)

From the Census Bureau

Statistics and technology of the precious metals
 Gov Info Census C 3/a. 10/ 5: 13   (reprint)

From the Census Bureau

The United States mining laws and regulations thereunder : and state and territorial mining laws, to which are appended local mining rules and regulations
 Gov Info Census C 3/a. 10/ 5: 14   (reprint)

From the Census Bureau

Report on the mining industries of the United States (exclusive of the precious metals) : with special investigations into the iron resources of the Republic and into the Cretaceous coals of the Northwest
 Gov Info Census C 3/a. 10/ 5: 15   (reprint)

From the Census Bureau

Reports on the water-power of the United States : statistics of power and machinery employed in manufactures
 Gov Info Census C 3/a. 10/ 5: 16-17 (reprint, 2 volumes)

From the Census Bureau

Report on the social statistics of cities
 Gov Info Census C 3/a. 10/ 5: 18-19   (reprint, 2 volumes)

From the Census Bureau

Report on the statistics of wages in manufacturing industries : with supplementary reports on the average retail prices of necessaries of life : and on trades societies, and strikes and lockouts
 Gov Info Census C 3/a. 10/ 5: 20   (reprint)

From the Census Bureau

Report on the defective, dependent, and delinquent classes of the population of the United States, as returned at the tenth census (June 1, 1880)
 Gov Info Census C 3/a. 10/ 5: 21   (reprint)

From the Census Bureau

Report on power and machinery employed in manufactures : embracing statistics of steam and water power used in the manufacture of iron and steel, machine tools and wood-working machinery, wool and silk machinery, and monographs on pumps and pumping engines, manufacture of engines and boilers, marine engines and steam vessels
 Gov Info Census C 3/a. 10/ 5: 22 (reprint)

From the Census Bureau

Compendium of the tenth Census (2 volumes)
 

From the Census Bureau

 

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