This makarapa was hand-crafted from a hard hat as fan memorabilia for the Ghanaian National Soccer team during the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa.
Bright Gyamfi - NU Doctoral Student : History
Black Stars Makarapa: Literature
A makarapa is a hand-cut and hand-painted hard hat worn by sports fans. Originally used as protection from projectiles thrown during matches, the articles have become prevalent representations of South African sports culture. The word makarapa means "scrapers", referring to rural workers who commute to cities and "scrape" a livelihood in mining and construction industries. The laborers returned home wearing the hard hats - which were eventually referred to as makarapas.