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Middle East and North Africa Studies

What Is a Primary Source?

Primary sources provide raw data (such as first-hand accounts or other direct evidence) about a topic, usually created during the timeframe under study by witnesses or recorders who experienced the subject being documented. It is the content of the source which matters, not its physical format; a digital article in the Jordan Times on "the challenges, successes of women leaders in Jordan’s municipal sector" serves the same primary source function as the print version of the article.

This guide will highlight some of the Herskovits Library's and University Library's materials which can be considered primary sources, depending on your project.

Primary Source Examples



 Primary source examples

 Anthropology, Archaeology

 Articles describing research, ethnographies, surveys,

cultural and historical artifacts

 Communications, Journalism

 News as reported events (printed, radio, TV, online), photographs,

blogs, social media sites

 Education, Political Science, Public  Policy

 Government publications, laws, court cases,

speeches, test results, interviews, polls, surveys

 Fine Arts

 Original art work, photographs, recordings of performances

and music, scripts (film, theatre, television), music scores,

interviews, memoirs, diaries, letters


 Government publications, newspapers, photographs,

diaries, letters, manuscripts, business records,

court cases, videos, polls, census data, speeches

Language and Literature

 Novels, plays, short stories, poems, dictionaries,

language manuals

Psychology, Sociology, Economics

 Articles describing research, experiment results, ethnographies, interviews, surveys, data sets


 Articles describing research and methodologies, documentation of lab research, research studies




Online Resources


Note: For maps of Africa, see our Maps & Travel Guides LibGuide.



See our News Sources tab.