Skip to main content

Evaluating Sources: Getting Started

Evaluating Sources Using the CRAAP Test

Use the CRAAP Test below to evaluate books, articles, websites and other materials.  It works for all information formats and also happens to be a great mnemonic device!

Criteria Questions to Ask
  • Does your topic require current information?  If so, when was the source written and published?
  • Has the information been revised or updated recently?
  • Does the information relate to your topic or answer your question?
  • Who is the intended audience?  Is the level too elementary or advanced for your needs?
  • Who is the author (person, company, or organization) and what are the author's credentials and affiliations?
  • If a website, does the URL provide insight?  examples: .com .edu .gov .org .net
  • Where does the information come from?
  • Can the information be verified through another source?
  • Has the information been reviewed?  Is there a bibliography?
  • What is the reason for the source's existence?  To inform, teach, sell, entertain, or persuade?
  • Who is the intended audience? 
  • Does the point of view appear objective or biased?


Adapted from Evaluating Information - Applying the CRAAP Test from the Meriam Library at California State University, Chico